Ecology of health: Poor posture is a common abnormality in the health of children. If in the primary grades, posture disorders are recorded only in every fifteenth, then by the time they leave school, it occurs in half of the children. Posture disorders must be corrected, and swimming and exercises in the water will help solve this problem.
Posture disorders are a common deviation in the state of health of children. If in primary school, posture disorders are recorded only in every fifteenth, then by the time they leave school, it occurs in half of the children. Posture disorders must be corrected, and swimming and exercise in water will help solve this problem.
Posture is a posture that a person subconsciously assumes while standing, sitting, or while walking.
Poor posture is a change in the ratio of the degree of physiological curves of the spine, leading to a change in the architectonics of the muscles of the chest and intervertebral articular joints.
Kyphosis – curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane with a bulge backward, in translation from ancient Greek – “humped”, “bent”.
Lordosis – curvature of the spine with a bulge forward.
The main reasons for the development of poor posture:
- Congenital anomalies During the intrauterine formation of the fetus, an incorrect laying and development of the muscles and joints of the spine occurs. This may be due to improper intrauterine position of the fetus, as well as genetically determined defects.
- Rickets Rickets, transferred in early childhood, leads to deformation of the bones of the chest, spine, bones of the lower extremities , the result is the development of subsequently impaired posture and scoliosis.
- Decreased visual acuity Poor vision forces the child to bend low over the table during school and at home. Poor posture gradually becomes a habit and the child continues to slouch even after correcting vision with glasses.
- Flat feet Flat feet contributes to an inappropriate spine position while walking. To compensate for the inconvenience arising when walking, the child tends to push forward the upper thoracic spine. Over time, muscle tone changes, and the pathological location of the spine is fixed. Subsequently, even in a sitting position, the spine remains in the wrong position.
- There is an even larger group of reasons for the formation of incorrect posture, which is not associated with specific diseases and with the initial sate of health, but is associated with external causes. Incorrect seating at the table during lessons, improperly selected furniture can provoke poor posture. Very often girls of large stature, embarrassed by their non-standard, in their opinion, dimensions, begin to slouch, the result is a violation of posture.
Types of posture disorders
The following types of posture disorders are distinguished:
1. Slouching. Slouching is one of the most common types of posture disorders, it is characterized by an increase in thoracic kyphosis.
2. Round back. The round back is characterized by the formation of thoracic kyphosis and the absence of lumbar, physiological, lordosis. If slouching can be called a health disorder that does not require urgent medical intervention, then a round back is a good reason for immediate treatment by an orthopedic surgeon.
3. Flattened back. A flattened back is characterized by a decrease in the severity of thoracic physiological kyphosis and the absence of physiological lumbar lordosis.
4. Flatback back. The condition is characterized by flattening of the thoracic physiological kyphosis and an increase in lumbar lordosis.
5. Round-curved back. With a round-curved back, the formation of an increased lumbar lordosis occurs, with a simultaneous increase in thoracic kyphosis.
6. Asymmetric posture. With this violation of posture, there is a deviation of the line of spinous processes in the frontal plane. Asymmetric posture is characterized by a deviation of the head to the side, different shoulder heights, and a decrease in muscle endurance.
Normal posture – 1, round-concave back – 2, flat-concave back – 3, flat back – 4, round back – 5
What Are posture disorders dangerous?
The whole body suffers from improper posture: the work of all organs and systems, including the activity of the cardiovascular system, is disrupted, breathing becomes difficult, a person gets tired quickly, often feels bad. Posture disorders can lead to the development of a number of pathological conditions, such as osteochondrosis with its numerous neurological manifestations, scoliosis, osteoarthritis.
Poor posture is a condition that needs to be corrected through complex painstaking work using a number of measures, taking into account individual characteristics. Such measures and methods of posture correction include:
- constant monitoring of your posture;
- uniform (symmetrical with respect to the spine) load distribution, for example, when wearing a backpack and bags;
- proper sleep on a hard bed, the pillow should not be high;
- proper nutrition, balanced intake of vitamins and minerals;
- constant physical activity (physical education, walks , swimming, jogging);
- refusal of “favorite” positions, such as a tendency to slouch or sit cross-legged;
- physical therapy, manual therapy, massage;
- correction of flat feet.
Swimming to treat posture disorders
Swimming is one of the most effective ways to correct posture. If other methods are perceived negatively by the child, then swimming is not only a treatment – it is an exciting game. By swimming, the child immerses in the intrauterine environment, which promotes relaxation, both psychological and physical.
Effects of swimming
During swimming, the human body is in a weightless state, thereby reducing the gravitational load on the spine. At the same time, it stimulates the strengthening of the muscular corset of the spinal column, harmonizes the tone of the paravertebral muscles, muscles of the chest and lower back. Swimming develops coordination of movements, which is greatly affected in children with postural disorders.
The conditions for the normal growth of the vertebral bodies are restored for children engaged in swimming.
Very often, with posture disorders, pain in the chest and lower back appears. They are caused by increased muscle tone. Over time, pain syndrome contributes to the development of muscle-tonic spasms, which subsequently turn from functional to organic. If at the initial stages, posture disorders are extremely reversible, then later they turn into chronic pathological conditions.
Exercises in the pool are an effective method of treating flat feet. As you know, flat feet is one of the reasons for the formation of incorrect posture. During exercise, the muscles of the foot and lower leg receive a versatile physical activity, which contributes to the formation of the correct arch of the foot and the strengthening of its ligamentous apparatus.
It is important to note that swimming also has a hardening effect. It stimulates nonspecific immune defenses, making children less susceptible to respiratory viral infections. According to statistics, ninety-five percent of children with frequent and long-term respiratory infections have postural disorders.
Therapeutic swimming for posture correction, techniques
Regardless of the type of posture disorders, the first lessons in the pool should help the child to adapt to the environment. Their duration should not exceed 15 – 20 minutes. During the first workouts, the child is allowed to do the types of water exercises that he is best able to do. Observing him during this period, assess his physical condition and his swimming capabilities.
It is important to remember that during classes the water temperature in the pool should not fall below 28 degrees, otherwise the effectiveness of the exercises decreases, since the effect of unloading the spine is not achieved. In cold water, muscle tone is increased, which can provoke cramps in the calf muscles and muscles of the thigh.
After the preparatory stage, you can start special exercises. All classes, of course, take place with the direct assistance of one of the adults. Often during the exercise, the child is supported by the instructor in the pelvic area.
For stooped back and round back , swimming crawl on the back is very effective.
Flattened and rounded back , perfectly corrected by swimming in the style of chest crawl and butterfly . When the back is flat, swimming on the back is not recommended.
If there is a very pronounced lumbar lordosis , then when swimming on the chest, a swim board is placed under the stomach .
Asymmetric posture is well treated by swimming in the style of butterfly and breaststroke .
During swimming, the child is often not quite right at first performs exercises. Most likely, they only remotely resemble classic swimming styles, but this is not the main thing. The main thing is the process itself. It is not necessary to demand the exact execution of all exercises. Very often, forcing you to accurately copy movements and turning training into a routine, you form a negative attitude of the child towards classes.